Preparation work is social, technical and financial in nature. Typical preparation activities include: the identification of funding sources, needs assessments, community and stakeholder consultations, socio-economic studies, the development of project concepts, assessments of site suitability (e.g. topography, geotechnical and environmental conditions, bulk services), land availability negotiations and agreements, participative planning, preliminary design, estimates for capital and operational costs and applications to funders or implementation partners. Most of this work takes place during the pre-feasibility and feasibility phases. Please also refer to the project preparation cycle diagram which illustrates more fully PPT’s systematic approach to project preparation.